Assignment: Primary Role of Cytochrome

Assignment: Primary Role of Cytochrome

Assignment: Primary Role of Cytochrome

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The primary role of cytochrome p-450, in the liver, is to:

stimulate steroid release as a stress response.

deactivate and detoxify medications and other substances.

produce fibrinogen, prothrombin, and factor V.

eliminate amino acids, forming urea.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

21.Which antimicrobial should be avoided in children because it is deposited in tissues undergoing calcification and can stunt growth?

Tetracycline

Ciprofloxacin

Vancomycin

Amoxicillin

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

22.Causes of hyperkalemia include:

hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition.

vomiting and diarrhea.

renal failure and Addison’s disease.

hyperaldosteronism and Cushing’s disease.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

23.Which statement is true regarding the pharmacokinetics of drug administration?

The immature liver or kidneys of the very young may accelerate drug metabolism and excretion.

Medications enter the body in solid form and change into solution for absorption and utilization.

It includes medication absorption, distribution to tissues, metabolism, and elimination from the body.

A therapeutic effect occurs as the medication reaches the target cell.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

24.A patient with type 1 diabetes has been made NPO after midnight for surgery. Knowing that the patient needs to continue the insulin pump to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis, what would be an expectation of treatment?

Bedtime snack before midnight

Dextrose containing intravenous fluids

2am glucose check followed by apple juice if needed

Discontinue the insulin pump

Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

25.The major therapeutic actions of NSAIDS include all of the following except

reduction of inflammation.

reduction of pain.

reduction of fever.

reduction of clotting factors.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

26. A 68-year-old male has COPD with moderate airway obstruction. Despite using salmeterol daily, as prescribed, he reports continued symptoms of shortness of breath with mild exertion. Which one of the following agents would be an appropriate addition to his current therapy?

Systemic corticosteroids

Albuterol

Tiotropium

Roflumilast

Theophylline

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

• Instructor Feedback: Also a correct answer.

27. High altitudes may produce hypoxemia by:

right-to-left shunts

atelectasis.

decreased oxygen inspiration.

emphysema.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

28. Which of the following corticosteroids has the shortest half-life and thus must be dosed most frequently?

Dexamethasone

Hydrocortisone

Methylprednisolone

Prednisone

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

29. Aldosterone directly increases the reabsorption of (select all that apply):

magnesium.

calcium.

sodium.

water.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

30. Which of the following agents is considered a CYP3A4 inhibitor and should be used with caution in patients taking CYP3A4 substrates?

Phenytoin

Amiodarone

Carbamazepine

Rifampin

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

31. Which of the following agents is used to treat hypercalcemia of malignancy?

Activated vitamin D

Pamidronate (Aredia)

Hydrochlorothiazide

Kayexalate

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

32. A drug with a half-life of 10 hours is administered by continuous intravenous infusion. Which of the following best approximates the time for the drug to reach steady state?

10 hours

30 hours

40 hours

60 hours

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

• Instructor Feedback: Answer is correct.

33. What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential to initiate an action potential?

Potassium gates open, and potassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.

Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive.

Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.

Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

34. Which condition poses the highest risk for a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)?

Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus

Hypertension

Polycythemia

Smoking

Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

35. What is the action of calcitonin?

Increases metabolism.

Decreases metabolism.

Increases serum calcium.

Decreases serum calcium.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

36. Which stage of infection is occurring when the immune and inflammatory responses are triggered?

Incubation period

Prodromal stage

Invasion period

Convalescence

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

37. All of the following can be a likely cause of respiratory acidosis except:

emphysema.

pulmonary edema.

barbiturate overdose.

extreme fear and anxiety.

Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

38. The leading cause of death from a curable infectious disease throughout the world is

pneumonia.

tuberculosis.

HIV infection.

influenza.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

39. Which of the following best describes the mechanism of action of warfarin?

Directly inhibits factor Xa

Inhibits factors II, VII, IX, and X

Blocks the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

Upregulates antithrombin III

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

40. Hypomagnesemia occurs when serum magnesium concentration is less than

1.0 mEq/L.

1.5 mEq/L

1. 0 mEq/L.

1. 0 mEq/L.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

41. What is the direct action of atrial natriuretic hormone? (Select all that apply.)

Sodium retention

Sodium excretion

Water retention

Water excretion

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

42. Which method of drug administration can have immediate effects and requires lower doses compared to oral or parenteral administration?

Intravenous

Sublingual

Transdermal

Inhalation

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

43. Pulmonary emboli do not cause which of the following?

Obstruct blood supply to lung parenchyma

Have origins from thrombi in the legs

Occlude pulmonary vein branches

Occlude pulmonary artery branches

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

44. Which factor is responsible for the hypertrophy of the myocardium associated with hypertension?

Increased norepinephrine

Adducin

Angiotensin II

Insulin resistance

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

45. The nurse has a patient who has been on multidrug therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. When planning patient education, the nurse knows the patient needs to watch for which symptom of an adverse effect of multidrug therapy?

Hearing loss

Changes in vision

Generalized pruritus

Jaundice

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

46. The most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection is

aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions.

not receiving the vaccine.

refusing to cough and take deep breaths.

remaining in bed until postop day two.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

47. Death from influenza usually results from

high temperature.

dehydration.

pneumonia.

metabolic alkalosis.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

48. Which statement is true regarding the half-life of medications?

Doubling the dose will double the medication half-life.

Approximately 2 half-lives are required for a medication to be completely eliminated.

Patients with renal or hepatic disease usually have decreased half-lives.

The half-life of a drug helps determine how often the drug is to be administered.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

49. The spread of microorganisms from mother to the baby across the placenta is termed

direct transmission.

vertical transmission.

horizontal transmission.

indirect transmission.

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

50. Which class of diuretics treats hypertension by increasing sodium and water retention?

Loop diuretics

Thiazide diuretics

Potassium sparing diuretics

Aldosterone inhibiting diuretics

• Question Points: 2.0 / 2.0

Assignment: Primary Role of Cytochrome

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